Effect of G3 and Other Juices on Antioxidant Network Status
Clinical Study: Effect of G3 and Other Juices on AntioxidantNetwork Status As Measured by Raman Spectroscopy
Carsten R. Smidt, Ph. D., FACN, Angela Mastaloudis, Ph. D.
Pharmanex Research Institute, Provo, UT.
Biophotonic Raman spectroscopy method was used to show the effect of Pharmanex® brand G3 and other juices on overallantioxidant network status. A total of 34 subjects (n=34) entered into this clinical study. Results confirmed that G3 significantly increases skin carotenoid score (~40%) after eight weeks of regular consumption. Furthermore, G3 increased skin-carotenoidscore ~375% as compared to Tahitian Noni® and Xango™ (mangosteen) juices.
The human body is continuously exposed to a variety of destructive oxidants including byproducts of energy metabolism, pollution, cigarette smoke and ultraviolet sunlight. To offset damage by these oxidants, the body has a number of natural antioxidant defense mechanisms. These include both intrinsic antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, and extrinsic antioxidant nutrients including vitamins E and C and carotenoids. However, when exposure to metabolic and environmental sources of oxidants exceeds that of the body’s antioxidant defense system, a state of oxidative stress develops (Halliwell, B 1991).
There is a strong body of evidence that high intakes of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants have far reaching cell protective benefits, promote cardiovascular health, normal insulin metabolism, cognitive function, eye health and general overall health and well being. Science has also suggested that antioxidants and carotenoids help protect against oxidative stress (Liu, C. S. 2004). Thus, a combined diet of antioxidant-containing supplements, and fruits and vegetables, may help tip the balance away from pro-oxidants in favor of antioxidants. Carotenoids are some of the most abundant antioxidant nutrients present in fruits and vegetables. It has been theorized that carotenoids may be responsible for many of the protective effects of a diet high in fruits and vegetables in promoting cardiovascular health, eye health, and overall cell protection (During, A. 2004). In addition to providing antioxidant protection, these essential nutrients are involved in intercellular communication (Deming, 2002) and some serve as important precursors to vitamin A (Bernstein, 1998).
Recent technology, in the form of the BioPhotonic Scanner (Pharmanex), allows for the measurement of carotenoids as an indicator of overall antioxidant status in the skin, through raman spectroscopy (Svilaas, 2004). Advantages of measuring carotenoids in the skin are that it provides a good representation of systemic carotenoid status, habitual dietary fruit and vegetable intake and overall antioxidant status (Smidt, C.R., 2004). Primary carotenoids detected are: lycopene, β-carotene, α-carotene, α-cryptoxanthin, lutein, phytoene and phytofluene, with lycopene and β-carotene present in the highest amounts (Gellermann, 2002). This measurement technique is fast, painless, and cost effective, making it ideal for the assessment of antioxidant status in humans. Furthermore, carotenoid levels measured in the skin by raman spectroscopy technology have been demonstrated to be directly related to both self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption and antioxidant supplementation (Smidt, 2004).
Pharmanex provides supplements, including G3 that provide antioxidants, including carotenoids, shown to be beneficial for overall health and well-being.
The purpose of this study was to assess antioxidant benefits, and to determine bioavailability of carotenoids, as a biomarker of overall antioxidant protection from three different branded fruit juice products.
The bioavailability of carotenoids, a biomarker of antioxidant status, was compared in 31 subjects (n=31) individuals consuming one of three different fruit juices for eight weeks (Figure 1). Bioavailability and antioxidant status was assessed using the BioPhotonic Scanner.
Figure 1: Subject StatisticsG3 (n=11)Noni® (n=10)Xango™ (n=10)Age (years)30 ± 1030 ± 735 ± 9Height (cm)172 ± 10178 ± 10179 ± 10Weight (kg)69 ± 1580 ± 1877 ± 16BMI-Body Mass Index23 ± 325 ± 524 ± 5Baseline Score24,273 ± 4,96222,200 ± 4,68520,492 ± 6,994f/v intake (serv/day)1.7 ± 1.52.5 ± 1.22.4 ±1.3
This study was conducted by Pharmanex scientists. The study authors, Carsten R. Smidt and Angela Mastaloudis, are employees of Pharmanex, a division of Nu Skin Enterprises, Inc. Pharmanex produces and distributes dietary supplement products, including g3.
We measured the efficacy of three different juice mixtures in increasing skin carotenoid levels over an eight-week period as an indication of carotenoid bioavailability, as a biomarker of overall antioxidant protection.
G3 gˆ´ac superfruit blend with lipocarotenes™
G3, a Pharmanex® product, is composed of four main fruit juices from concentrate: Gac (Mormordica cochinchinensis), Cili (rosa roxburghii tratt), Siberian pineapple (Hippophae rhamnoids, also known as Sea Buckthorn), and Chinese lycium, (Lycium barbarum, also known as wolfberry). G3 is composed of food-grade ingredients commonly found in the global food supply making it a safe, well-tolerated supplement. G3 is a food-grade product that is commercially available.
Xango™ Juice (mangosteen)
Xango™ is composed of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) from whole fruit juice, apple fruit juice, pear fruit juice, grape fruit juice, pear fruit puree, blueberry fruit juice, raspberry fruit juice, strawberry fruit juice, cranberry fruit juice, cherry fruit juice, citric acid, natural flavor, pectin, xanthan gum and sodium benzoate. Xango™ is a food-grade product that is commercially available.
Tahitian Noni® Juice
Tahitian Noni® is composed of reconstituted Morinda citrifolia (noni fruit) juice from pure noni puree from French Polynesia, natural grape juice concentrate, natural blueberry juice concentrate, and natural flavors. Tahitian Noni® is a food-grade product that is commercially available.
Subjects (n = 34) meeting study criteria were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups—Noni,® Xango™ (mangosteen), or G3. (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Subjects Per Group
N = 12
N = 11
N = 11