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Glossary of Terms
The Glossary is designed to familiarize you with company and product ingredient terms. To find a specific term, click on the letter that the word begins with. This will narrow the search and allow you to find the term more easily. 




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Acacia Senegal Gum - a natural derivativeresponsible for the tightening action of Face LiftPowder with Activator.

ageLOC™ - Nu Skin®’s anti-ageing platform that includes science used to develop and market topical skin care products and oral supplements that target sources and signs of ageing.

Allspice berry (Pimenta dioica) - a spice used by the indigenous people of Central America to relieve persistent dry, cracked or red skin on the feet.

Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) - recognised for its soothing and conditioning properties.

Alpha lipoic acid (Thioctic acid) - a powerful antioxidant that is both water and lipid soluble. Helps improve the appearance of uneven texture and acne remnant marks.

Alphahydroxy acid (AHA) - an acid that increases skin cell turnover, helps reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and promote smoother, clearer skin.

Amino acid - a building block of protein. More than 20 different amino acids are used by the body to manufacture different proteins in muscle, hair, skin, blood and other tissues.

Aminogen - a scientific selection of 16 different amino acids that supply essential building blocks for youthful looking skin.

Antioxidant support network - the body’s system of protection against free radicals. Antioxidants work synergistically together, some fighting free radicals formation directly and some restoring the antioxidant properties of others.

Antioxidant - a compound which helps capture free radicals. Many common nutrients have antioxidant properties.

AP-24® - a patented oral care ingredient with dimethicone and surfactants that leaves a smooth, clean feeling on the teeth.

Arginine - an amino acid involved in soothing the skin. Facilitates recovery from stress on the skin.

arNOX - a powerful free radical generator found on the surface of cells and within the body. arNOX is an age-related enzyme that is believed to contribute as a source of ageing skin. arNOX levels in the human body have been shown to be associated with a person’s appearance.

arSuperMarkers - age-related super markers or “arSuperMarkers” is a term Nu Skin® coined that describes components of body chemistry that influence how we age.

Ascorbic acid - pure vitamin C. An antioxidant that protects the body cells, helps maintain a healthy skin and is needed as part of the body’s defences.

Astaxanthin - is the carotenoid responsible for the red/pink colour in salmon, lobster, shrimp and krill. Compared to beta-carotene, astaxanthin possesses two extra functional groups.

Ava puhi extract (Zingiber zerumbet) - nectar from the bulb of the ava puhi plant. Used for centuries by Polynesians to soften and condition hair.



Babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) - extracted from kernels of the babassu palm. Used for generations by indigenous South American cultures as a natural

Babassu powder (Orbignya phalerata) - throughout the ages, South Americans have ground babassu nuts into a fine, silk-like powder to use in food. Used today to absorb wetness on the skin.

Bamboo extract - a powerful anti-ageing ingredient blend (combined with pea extract and glucosamine) that has been shown to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and increase cell turnover, resulting in more visually youthful skin.

Bentonite clay - this natural clay, derived from volcanic ash, acts as a magnet to remove dulling skin cells and toxins, then polishes skin for a fresh, bright complexion.

Beta-carotene - an antioxidant phytonutrient that can be converted into vitamin A in the body as needed. Beta-carotene is the colourful pigment found in many fruits and vegetables.

Biophotonics - a field of study that uses light to measure biomarkers in living organisms.

Bioavailability - the extent to which an ingested nutrient is absorbed, taken up by the body’s tissues and utilised for its specific functions.

Bioflavonoids - a family of water soluble antioxidant compounds found as pigments in numerous fruits and vegetables.

Borage seed oil - is an excellent source of gamma linoleic acid (GLA), an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid that can be converted into biologically active substances, which are regulators and participate in many important body functions.

Brown seaweed - highly mineralised and rich with amino acids and antioxidants. Aids in the absorption and retention of moisture.

Burdock root extract (Arctium lappa) - historically used to help troubled complexions. B complex vitamins - water-soluble vitamins that provide dietary support for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins.



Cactus - an extract that helps the skin look moist and radiant.


Carrot Extract (Daucus Carota Sativis) — Natural source of pro-vitamin A that helps promote healthy looking skin.

Calcium - is the most abundant mineral in the human body. It is necessary for healthy bones, strong teeth, proper nerve transmission, muscle contraction, normal blood coagulation, energy yielding metabolism and many other physiological functions.

Carotenoids - an important category of fat soluble antioxidants. Abundantly found in nature and responsible for many of the reds, oranges and yellows we see in fruits and vegetables. Some examples of carotenoids are beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein and astaxanthin.

Carrot extract (Daucus carota sativis) - natural source of pro vitamin A that helps promote healthy looking skin.

Cetylated fatty acid esters - an all natural form of a fatty acid treated with alcohol and used by the body as an emulsifier and lubricant.

Chamomile extract (Anthemis noblilis and Chamomilla recutita) - known for its soothing, conditioning and softening effects.

Chinese bitter cucumber - part of the Mormordica family. Also known as gâc fruit. It is a nutrient-dense fruit from Southeast Asia that contains high amounts of carotenoids.

Chinese lycium - is a small red superfruit which contains antioxidants like zeaxanthin, flavonoids, beta-carotene and vitamin C.

Citrus aurantium amara - used by various cultures throughout Mainland China and the Caribbean, especially Haiti, as a refreshing, natural deodoriser. Though originating in Mainland China, Citrus aurantium amara was introduced into Europe in the eleventh century. The fruit of the Citrus aurantium amara (a small orange called a Seville orange) became very popular, not only for its delightful sweet and sour taste, but also for its refreshing scent and deodorising properties.

Clematis vitalba leaves - used for generations by Native Americans to soothe flaky, dry skin.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 or Ubiquinone) - an important network-antioxidant with the ability to regenerate and support other antioxidants. Topically, coenzyme Q10 promotes essential cellular energy for a radiant, youthful appearance. Dietary supplement preparations containing coenzyme Q10 also promote internal cellular energy with particular benefit to cardiovascular health.

Collagen - a protein that provides structure, strength and elasticity to the skin and other tissues throughout the body.

Colostrum - colostrum is the mother’s first milk produced after the birth of her offspring. Differs from regular milk in that it has a higher concentration of immune supporting proteins. Research shows that bovine colostrum confers immune benefit in humans.

Colourless carotenoid (Dunaliella salina extract) - a unique antioxidant produced from algae grown in the Mediterranean Sea. Helps protect the skin from environmental hazards.

Copper - an essential trace mineral critical to the function of many enzymes. Aids in iron transport in the body and in the formation of collagen and bone tissue.

Cordyceps sinensis - a mushroom prized in Mainland China since ancient times for its role in restoring vitality and stamina.

Cordyline terminalis - Hawaiian ti leaves treasured for hundreds of years by Polynesians for their skinsoothing properties.

Cortex - surrounds the core of the hair. The hair cortex gives hair its special qualities such as elasticity and curl. The cortex also contains granules of melanin, the hair’s pigment which is produced when the hair is growing in its follicle.

Cotton bloom extract - smoothes the cuticle, protects the keratin structure and moisturises naturally with seven actively synergistic oligosaccharides.

CS7 - smoothes cuticles to provide shine that lasts through repeated shampooing.

Cuticle - is the outermost portion of the hair shaft. The cuticle is responsible for much of the mechanical strength of the hair fibre. Made of flattened cells that overlap like the tiles on a terracotta roof, the cuticle protects the inside of the hair shaft from damage.



DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) - an omega 3 essential fatty acid important for the health of the nervous system. Fish oil is a good source of DHA.

Di- and tri-peptides - derived from hydrolysed rice protein; improve the skin’s recovery process after stress; stimulate cell renewal and synthesis of dermal proteins for improved firmness and a decrease in lines and wrinkles.

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) - the genetic material found in nearly every cell of the human body. DNA contains the genetic information necessary for building and maintaining an organism. DNA usually exists as a double strand held tightly together, creating a double helix.



Electrolytes - charged atoms capable of conducting electrical currents in biological fluids, which is necessary for nerve impulses and muscle contraction.

EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) - an omega 3 essential fatty acid important for the health of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Fish oil is a good source of EPA.

Ethocyn® - patented anti-ageing ingredient that improves the skin’s elastin content, the key component of firm skin.

Ethnobotanicals - plants used by indigenous cultures for skin benefits.

Eucalyptus - combined with menthol and peppermint oil to provide a cooling and invigorating sensation on the skin as well as a bold refreshing scent.

Evening primrose oil (Oenothera biennis) - a source of both gamma-linoleic acid and linoleic acid, both of which are beneficial fatty acids.



Flavonoids - an important class of antioxidant phytonutrients. It is estimated that there are over 600 different flavonoids present in foods and beverages, including green tea catechins, citrus bioflavonoids, quercetin, isoflavones from soy, grape seed extract and resveratrol.

Flaxseed lignans - phytonutrients commonly found in whole flaxseeds. Flaxseed lignans may offer benefits for menopausal health.

Free radicals - unstable molecules in the body that seek, attack and damage neighbouring molecules, making a continuing chain reaction of free radical formation and molecular damage. This chain reaction can lead to damage of cell membranes, DNA and tissue proteins.



Genes - the basic unit of heredity in living organisms. Genes are functional sections of DNA that hold the information to build, maintain and regenerate cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. Some of these traits are immediately visible, such as eye colour or number of limbs and some express themselves later on in life, such as rate of ageing, health.

Ginkgo biloba - a herbal extract from the ginkgo tree known for its powerful antioxidant benefits.

Ginkgo flavone glycosides - a group of phytonutrients found in ginkgo biloba leaves. Ginkgo flavone glycosides are known to have powerful antioxidant properties.

Gluconolactone - a polyhydroxy acid found naturally in skin cells. Its molecular structure makes it gentle and non-irritating to the skin while providing clinically proven anti-ageing benefits such as antioxidant protection, moisturisation and skin barrier.

Glucosamine - a powerful anti-ageing ingredient blend (combined with pea and bamboo extracts) that has been shown to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and increase cell turnover, resulting in more visually youthful skin.

Grape seed extract (Vitis vinfera) - a powerful antioxidant. Protects against free radicals.

Green tea (Camellia oleifera and Camellia sinensis) - an antioxidant that helps soothe troubled skin and even out skin tones. Green tea has particularly high levels of polyphenol antioxidants. Also known as Thea sinensis extract.



Heat shock proteins - unique technology that enhances the skin’s ability to protect against heat and UV stress, ensuring optimum cellular health.

Hibiscus flower extract (Hibiscus rosasinensis) - used throughout Polynesia, Southeast Asia and Central and South America for creating an infusion to cleanse, soften and soothe.

HMW Complex - this exclusive Nu Skin® ingredient combination includes hypnea musciformis extract, mugwort extract and willow herb. It works to soothe and calm the skin.

Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) - an extract from a flowering tree that invigorates and energises the skin.

Hyaluronic acid - a moisturising compound found naturally in the skin. Selected for its capacity to bind moisture to the skin’s surface.

Hydroxytyrosol - a free radical scavenging polyphenol found in extra virgin olive oil that promotes smooth, flawless skin.



IB R-Dormin® (Narcissus tazetta extract) - a natural compound in the narcissus bulb. Scientifically shown to enhance cellular durability and improve the skin’s natural defence against environmental aggressors.

Iron - a mineral necessary for the transportation of oxygen by the red blood cells, also aids in cell division and immune function.

Immunoglobulins - a general term for antibodies. In response to exposure to foreign substances, all mammals produce these specific immune proteins.



Jewelweed - found in North America and traditionally used by Native Americans to calm and soothe troubled skin.

Job’s tears extract (Coix Lacryma-Jobi) - derived from seeds of an ornamental grass. Historically used in Asia to soothe the skin.

Jojoba oil (Simmondsia chinensis) - a natural moisturiser derived from the seeds of a desert shrub that helps hair and skin look and feel soft.


Kaolin - is a natural clay that absorbs excess oils and other impurities from the skin.

Kelpadelie extract (Macrocystis pyrifera) - brown marine kelp extract. Helps preserve youthful collagen and elastin for healthy looking skin.

Krill oil - a marine oil offering a natural combination of phospholipids high in the essential fatty acids EPA and DHA.


Lactic acid - see Alphahydroxy acid.

Lactobionic acid - a polyhydroxy acid that occurs naturally in skin cells. Clinically shown to enhance cell turnover and improve skin tone and texture without irritation.

Lavender extract (Lavandula angustifolia) - used since ancient times as a cleansing ingredient.

Liquorice extract (Glycyrrhiza glabra root) - helps soothe the skin and reduce the appearance of skin discolouration.

Lipocarotenes - a highly bioavailable matrix of carotenoids and fatty acids found in the gâc fruit. The presence of the fatty acids in lipocarotenes enables efficient absorption and transport of the carotenes.

Lutein - a yellow carotenoid found in many fruits and vegetables. Found in high concentrations in the retina, providing antioxidant protection by filtering the harmful effects of high energy blue and near ultraviolet light.



Magnesium - a mineral important to bone structure and cell division, is it also involved in energy metabolism, neurotransmission and muscle contraction.

Mandelic acid - an alphahydroxy acid sourced from plants. Helps reduce the appearance of past breakouts by gently exfoliating to reveal smoother, clearer skin.

Manganese - a nutritionally essential mineral, necessary to several enzymes, including manganese superoxide dismutase. Plays a role in energy yielding metabolism, bone development and oxidative protection.

Marigold extract - an extract that helps soothe and condition the skin.

Marine diatoms (Diatomaceous earth) - fine particles from planktonic algae used to gently exfoliate dead skin cells.

Marine fish oil extract - oil high in EPA and DHA, omega 3 and omega 9 (oleic) fatty acids and potent antioxidants such as vitamin E.

Meadowfoam seed oil (Limnanthes alba) - natural emollient. Moisturises and conditions skin.

Mentha arvensis - a natural wild mint that cools and revives the skin. Used by south-western Native American tribes.

Micronutrients - those nutrients that we need in only small quantities, such as vitamins and minerals. Micronutrients carry out hundreds of vital functions within the body.

Minerals - essential micronutrients that are required in the diet because they cannot be produced by the body. They function as cofactors in many reactions and help form intrinsic antioxidants in the body.

Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) - a flowering plant indigenous to the American Southwest, which is used by Native Americans for its soothing effects.

Mushroom extract (Fomes officinalis) - a natural astringent shown to improve skin tightness and firmness as it diminishes the appearance of pores.



NaPCA (Sodium PCA) - a humectant that attracts and binds moisture to the skin.

Natural killer cells - specialised immune cells that are acutely attracted to certain unwanted cells in the body.

Natural sterols - have a high water holding capacity and give hair a moist, smooth feel.

Nu Skin Force for Good Foundation® - a non-profit organisation committed to creating a better world for children by preserving indigenous cultures, protecting fragile environments, financing medical research into serious illnesses, providing humanitarian assistance, through donations of US$0.25 from each sale of Nu Skin®’s ethnobotanical product line, Epoch®.



Oestrogenic - having at least one oestrogen-like action. Phytoestrogens have the ability to exert desirable estrogenic effects without exerting negative oestrogenic effects.

Oligopeptide - enhances lip definition and fullness by promoting collagen production.

Omega 3 fatty acids - one of two classifications of fatty acids that are essential to human nutrition (the other is omega 6). The omega 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important for normal immune function, cardiovascular health, maintenance of normal blood pressure, brain function and skin health.

Oxidation - a reaction caused to the body’s cells by the action of free radicals. Over time, oxidised cells become weaker and less able to replicate themselves perfectly.



Panthenol - member of the vitamin B family. A revitalising moisturiser and conditioner for both skin and hair.

Palmitoyl pentapeptide-3 - sends age reversing signals to collagen-producing cells to help reduce the appearance of moderate to deep lines.

Papain - an enzyme from the tropical fruit papaya that helps eliminate build up in pores.

Pea extract - a powerful anti-ageing ingredient blend (combined with bamboo extract and glucosamine) that has been shown to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and increase cell turnover, resulting in more visually youthful skin.

Peppermint oil (Mentha piperita) - a natural plant oil that cools, invigorates and stimulates the skin.

Phosphatidylcholine - derived from soy. Helps protect cell membranes and maintain skin fluidity.

Phospholipid - make up a major portion of the cell membrane of every cell in the body. They are essential for all vital cell processes and contribute to a proper brain function.

Photosomes - DNA enzymes derived from marine plankton. They defend and support the skin’s intrinsic DNA repair process, helping repair the signs of sun damage. Lipid encapsulation provides enhanced bioavailability.

Phytoestrogen - oestrogen-like compounds present in some plants. Phytoestrogens have a mild oestrogen-like effect, binding to oestrogen receptors in the body to modulate the effects of the body’s own oestrogen.

Phytonutrients - plant compounds that have been found to have qualities which can benefit human health, such as antioxidant properties. Phytonutrients include isoflavones, carotenoids, flavonoids and catechins.

Pinecone extract - an extract that helps the skin look moist and radiant.

Pistachio oil (Pistacia vera) - a nut oil rich in fatty acids that moisturises and softens the skin.

Polyhydroxy acids (PHA) - see Gluconolactone and Lactobionic acid.

Polymer technology - creates a solid cream concealer that weightlessly offers smooth, longlasting, buildable coverage without the use of petrolatum or heavy waxes.

Polyphenols - a group of plant chemicals, some of which have antioxidant properties. Polyphenols are found in the skins of some fruits and in green tea in the form of catechins.

Pomegranate - a deep-red, many seeded fruit native to Persia. A source of antioxidants supporting immune and cardiovascular health.

Potassium ascorbyl tocopheryl phosphate - a super antioxidant formed by binding vitamins C and E into one compound, giving excellent free radical fighting ability.

Premocin - a proprietary ingredient blend that puts Tru Face® ingredients where they can do the most good.

Pro-collagen peptides - send age-reversing signals to collagen producing cells to help reduce the appearance of moderate to deep lines.

Protein - compounds made of amino acids, containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes other atoms. Used by the body for building tissues, proteins are found in meat, eggs, dairy products, nuts, grains, fruits and vegetables.

Proteolytic enzymes - a group of enzymes extracted from plant sources such as pineapple and papaya.

Pumpkin enzymes (Lactobacillus/Curcurbita pepo fruit ferment extract) - proteolytic enzymes derived from pumpkin that help exfoliate and slough off dead skin cells.



Quadrinone - a patented naturally occurring compound clinically proven to diminish redness, itching, stinging and burning associated with problematic skin.

Quercetin - one of the most abundant and intensively researched flavonoids, found throughout fruits and vegetables. Responsible for a wide range of health benefits including antioxidant, cellular health and cardiovascular health.


Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) - this mushroom has been used in Mainland China for over 2,000 years to support the body’s own natural immune system.

Retinol - a pure form of vitamin A that helps smooth fine lines and wrinkles, increase skin clarity and bring radiance to the complexion.

Rutin - a flavonoid found in many fruits, vegetables and plants. Provides antioxidant support and contributes to maintain a healthy cardiovascular system.



Saccharide isomerate - binds moisture to the skin, reducing dryness and giving skin a healthy glow.

Salicylic acid - a betahydroxy acid that promotes skin exfoliation. Used for both anti-ageing and antiacne benefits.

Sea kelp - soothes and conditions skin.

SeaLastin (Chlorella vulgaris extract) - derived from algae grown off the coast of France. Helps protect the support structures of skin.

Selenium - vital in the function of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase which contributes to the protection of cell constituents from oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide free radicals.

Shea butter (Butyrospermum parkii) - a rich emollient that enhances the skin’s natural barrier function and increases moisture levels.

Siberian pineapple - a small orange or yellow berry with an unsurpassed natural source of carotenoids, tocopherols, vitamin C and flavonoids. Also rich in several other vitamins, including B1, B2 and vitamin K.

Sisku’pas (Tsuga heterophylla) - used by indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest for its skin-soothing effects.

Skin Carotenoid Score (SCS) - the score generated by the Pharmanex® BioPhotonic Scanner. Your SCS provides an immediate indication of your skin carotenoid content. This score is an indicator of the overall strength of your body’s antioxidant defence system.

Soy lipids (Glycine soja) - protect the skin’s delicate moisture barrier. Help skin stay soft and hydrated.

Squalane - derived from olive oil. Chemically resembles sebum, making it a highly effective skin conditioner.

Strawberry extract (Fragaria vesca) - helps soothe skin and reduce the appearance of pores.

Sunscreen - an active ingredient that helps prevent sun damage by absorbing harmful UV radiation.

Supplementation - the practice of consuming beneficial nutrients in capsule, tablet, powder or liquid form in addition to eating a healthy, balanced diet.



Tēgreen 97® (Camellia sinensis) - a proprietary Pharmanex® antioxidant that helps protect the skin from oxidising free radicals.

Terpene lactones - terpene lactones are nonflavonoid phytonutrients found in Ginkgo biloba. They are known to aid circulation to the brain and to contribute to mental functioning.

Theobroma cacao (Cocoa) extract - a botanical extract rich in theobromine, which has been shown to promote weight loss.

Theobromine - contains a molecule shown to target a certain enzyme in fat cells. Targeting this enzyme may help activate fat breakdown.

Tocopherol - pure vitamin E, one of the most powerful antioxidants to help protect skin against free radicals.

Trace minerals - minerals important to physiological functions, but required in very small amounts. Some examples include iron, zinc, copper and selenium.

Tricalgoxyl® (kelp sulfated oligosaccharides) - extracted from brown algae. Rich in polysaccharides, which provide an optimal environment for abundant hair.



Urea - a highly effective and powerful humectant. Urea penetrates deep into the outermost layer of the skin to hydrate and protect dry, damaged skin. In higher concentrations, urea can help reduce scales and calluses.


Vitamin A - see Retinol.

Vitamin B - a family of water soluble nutrients necessary for energy production and cellular metabolism. Includes thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid and cobalamin.

Vitamin C - see Ascorbic acid.

Vitamin D - a fat soluble nutrient obtained from dietary sources or produced by skin cells when exposed to sun light. Necessary for bone and cellular health. Synthesis of vitamin D in the skin by the action of sunlight is insufficient to meet requirements in European markets, especially during winter months when there is little sunlight exposure.

Vitamin E - see Tocopherol.

Vitamin K - this fat soluble nutrient is involved in bone mineralisation and is a cofactor in normal blood clotting.

Vitamins - essential micronutrients that are required in the diet because they cannot be produced by the body. Vitamins can act as antioxidants and coenzymes, compounds necessary for numerous reactions within the body.



Walnut shell powder (Juglans regia) - ground from the English walnut to create a mild abrasive for softer, smoother skin.

White tea extract (Camiellia sinensis) - an antioxidant high in catechins; helps protect and restore the skin’s natural resiliency.

White willow bark - a natural source of salicin to promote prostaglandin balance for healthy joints and joint comfort.



Yarrow (Achillia millefolium) - a plant extract that helps soothe the skin.

Youth Gene Clusters - functional groups of genes that share characteristics associated with youthfulness. Youth Gene Clusters are a key arSuperMarker.



Zinc - a trace mineral essential to more than 70 enzyme reactions in the body. Zinc also protects against free radicals, contributes to normal bone health, cognitive function and plays an important role in immune function.

Zinc PCA - a sebum reducer.