Evolution of the Biophotonic Scanner

Resonance Raman Technology Studies Utilizing Tools Other than the Biophotonic Scanner

The Eye


Bernstein PS, Zhao DY, Sharifzadeh M, Ermakov IV, Gellermann W. Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in the living human eye. Arch Biochem Biophys 2004;15;430(2):163-9.

Bernstein PS, Zhao DY, Wintch SW, Ermakov IV, McClane RW, Gellermann W. Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in normal subjects and in age-related macular degeneration patients. Ophthalmology 2002;109(10):1780-7.

Bernstein, P.S. and Gellermann, W. Measurement of carotenoids in the living primate eye using resonance Raman spectroscopy. In: Oxidants and Antioxidants: Ultrastructure and Molecular Biology Protocols, edited by D. Armstrong, Totowa:Humana Press, Inc., 2002;321-329.

Bernstein, P.S. New insights into the role of the macular carotenoids in age-related macular degeneration. Resonance Raman studies. Pure and Applied Chemistry 2002;74(8):1419-1425.

Bernstein PS, Yoshida MD, Katz NB, McClane RW, Gellermann W. Raman detection of macular carotenoid pigments in intact human retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1998;39(11):2003-11.

Ermakov IV, Ermakova MR, Gellermann W. Simple Raman instrument for in vivo detection of macular pigments. Appl Spectrosc 2005;59(7):861-7.

Ermakov I, Ermakova M, Gellermann W, Bernstein PS. Macular pigment Raman detector for clinical applications. J Biomed Opt 2004; 9(1):139–48.

Ermakov IG, McClane RW, Gellermann W. Resonant Raman detection of macular pigments in the living human retina. Optics Letters 2001;26(4):202–204.

Gellermann W, Bernstein PS. Noninvasive detection of macular pigments in the human eye. J Biomed Opt. 2004;9(1):75-85.

Gellermann W, Ermakov IV, Ermakova MR, McClane RW, Zhao DY, Bernstein PS. In vivo resonant Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 2002;19(6):1172-86.

Gellermann, W., Ermakov, I,V., McClane, R.W. Raman imaging of human macular pigments. Optics Letters 2002; 27(1):833–835.

Neelam, K.; O'Gorman, N.; Nolan, J.; O'Donovan, O.; Wong, H.B.; Au Eong, K.G. and Beatty, S. Measurement of Macular Pigment: Raman Spectroscopy versus Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46(3):1023-1032.

Zhao DY, Wintch SW, Ermakov IV, Gellermann W, Bernstein PS. Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in retinal, choroidal, and macular dystrophies. Arch Ophthalmol 2003;121(7):967-72.




Bhosale P, Ermakov IV, Ermakova MR, Gellermann W, Bernstein PS. Resonance Raman quantification of nutritionally important carotenoids in fruits, vegetables, and their juices in comparison to high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52(11):3281–3285.


The Skin


Ermakov IV, Gellermann W. Validation model for Raman based skin carotenoid detection. Arch Biochem Biophys 2010;504(1):40-9.

Darvin ME, Patzelt A, Knorr F, Blume-Peytavi U, Sterry W, Lademann J. One-year study on the variation of carotenoid antioxidant substances in living human skin: influence of dietary suplementation and stress factors.  J. Biomed. Opt 2008;13(4)(EPub Ahead of Print Jul/Aug 2008; 044028).

Darwin M, Schanzer S, Teichmann A, Blume-Peytavi U, Sterry W, Lademann J. [Functional food and bioavailability in the target organ skin.] Hautarzt. 2006;57(4):286-90. German. 

Ermakov IV, Ermakova MR, Gellermann W, Lademann J. Noninvasive selective detection of lycopene and beta-carotene in human skin using Raman spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt 2004;9(2):332–8.

Ermakov et al. Resonance Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human tissues. Optics Letters 2001;26(15):1179–1181.

Gellermann, W., Ermakov, I.V., Scholz, T.A. and Bernstein, P. S. Noninvasive laser Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in skin. Cosmetic Dermatology 2002;15(9):65-68.

Hata TR, Scholz TA, Ermakov IV, McClane RW, Khachik F, Gellermann W, Pershing LK. Non-invasive Raman spectroscopic detection of carotenoids in human skin. J Invest Dermatology 2000;115:441-448.


Studies Utilizing the Pharmanex Biophotonic Scanner




Wengreen H, Aguilar S, Lefevre M. Skin Carotenoids as a Biomarker of Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Children. Presented at American Dietetic Association’s Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo. Boston,Ma. November 6-9, 2010.

Bi, S.X., Li, C.L., Guo, H.W., Poole, S., Zhu, J. S. The effects of life styles and LifePak on human skin carotenoids scores measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy BioPhotonic Scanner. FASEB Journal 2007;21(4):A709. 

Changling Li, Hongwei Guo, Senxu Bi, Zhu, Z.G., Zhu, J. S. Skin Carotenoids Measured by Resonance Raman Spectroscopy BioPhotonic Scanner and the Effects of Life Styles and LifePak on Human Carotenoids Nutritional Status and Skin Scores.  Asian Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;15(Suppl.):S79.

Zukley, LM., Nguyen,V, Lowndes, J., Smidt, C., Angelopoulos, TJ., Rippe, JM., Effects of antioxidant supplementation on skin and serum carotenoids, FASEB Journal 2006;20:A145.

Fiutem J, Zukley L, Geise T, Legowski P, Nguyen V, Dube T, Yount B, Smidt C, Angelopoulos T, Rippe J. Adiposity Negatively Influences Carotenoids and Antioxidant Status in Overweight Individuals. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise Suppl 2004;36(5):A302.

Smidt, C. R.; W. R. Gellermann and J. R. Zidichouski. Noninvasive Raman spectroscopy measurement of human carotenoid status. FASEB Journal 2004;18(4):A480.

Smidt, C.R., Shieh, D. Non-invasive, biophotonic assessment of skin carotenoids as a biomarker of human antioxidant status. FASEB Journal 2003;17(5):A1115.

Zukley L, Legowski P, Nguyen V, Geise T, Lowndes J, Melanson K, Angelopoulos T, Rippe J. The Effect of Weight Loss on Dietary Carotenoid and Skin Carotenoid Levels in Subjects Participating in a Weight Loss Study. Obesity Research Suppl 2004;12:A57.


Full-Length Articles Published in Peer Reviewed Journals


Lima X, Kimball A. Skin Carotenoid Levels in Adult Patients with Psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. Nov 4, 2010.

Bergeson SD, Peatross JB, Eyring NJ, Fralick JF, Stevenson DN, Ferguson SB. Resonance Raman measurements of carotenoids using light-emitting diodes. J. Biomed. Opt 2008;13(EPub Ahead of Print Jul. 15, 2008; 044026).

Rerksuppaphol S, Rerksuppaphol L. Effect of fruit and vegetable intake on skin carotenoid detected by non-invasive Raman spectroscopy. J Med Assoc Thai 2006;89(8):1206-12.

Li CL, Bi SX, Zhu JS, Zhu ZG. New functions of carotenoids and clinical assessments. Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine 2006;6:261-264. 

Guo HW, Li H, Huang ZY, Xue K, Zhou X, Ma YY, Liu M, Zhu ZG, Li CL, Zhu JS. Examination of Carotenoids in Human Skin by Biophotonic Raman Spectroscopy Scanner. Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine 2006;23(3):204-206.

Li CL, Bi SX, Poole S, Smidt C, Zhu JS.  Human Skin Carotenoids in 88,611 subjects measured by Biophotonic Scanner. Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 2006;15(2):124-125.  

Smidt, C.R. Non-invasive Raman spectroscopic detection of carotenoids in human skin as a biomarker of antioxidant status. J. Korean Acad Fam Med 2005;26(4):S398-408.

Smidt, C.R., Burke, D.S. Nutritional significance and measurement of carotenoids. Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 2004;2(2):79-91.


Book Chapters/Book Segments


Gellermann W, Zidichouski JA, Smidt CR, Bernstein PS. Raman Detection of Carotenoids in Human Tissue. In: Packer L, Obermueller‑Jevic U, Kraemer K, and Sies H, eds. Carotenoids and Retinoids – Molecular Aspects and Health Issues. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press, 2005; Ch. 6, 86‑114.

Mahan LK and Escott-Stump S. (Eds.). Krause's Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 12th Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders 2007; Ch. 15, 427-428.